algebra I standards
Symbolic reasoning and calculations with symbols are central in algebra. Through
the study of algebra, a student develops an understanding of the symbolic language
of mathematics and the sciences. In addition, algebraic skills and concepts are
and used in a wide variety of problem-solving situations.
- 1.0 Students identify and use the arithmetic
properties of subsets of integers and rational, irrational, and real numbers, including closure properties for the four
basic arithmetic operations where applicable:
1.1 Students use
properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true or false.
- 2.0 Students understand and use such
operations as taking the opposite, finding the reciprocal, taking a root, and raising to a fractional power. They understand and
use the rules of exponents.
- 3.0 Students solve equations and inequalities involving
- 4.0 Students simplify expressions before
solving linear equations and inequalities in one variable, such as 3(2x-5) + 4(x-2) = 12.
- 5.0 Students solve
including word problems, involving linear equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for
- 6.0 Students graph
a linear equation and compute the x- and y-intercepts (e.g., graph
2x + 6y
= 4). They are also able to sketch the region defined by linear
inequality (e.g., they sketch the region defined by 2x
+ 6y < 4).
- 7.0 Students verify that a point lies on a
line, given an equation of the line. Students are able to derive linear equations by using the point-slope formula.
- 8.0 Students understand the concepts of
parallel lines and perpendicular lines and how those slopes are related. Students are able to find the equation of a line
perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given
Students solve a system of two linear
equations in two variables algebraically and are able to interpret the answer graphically. Students are able to solve a
system of two linear inequalities in two variables and to sketch the solution sets.
- 10.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and
divide monomials and polynomials. Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, by using these
- 11.0 Students apply basic factoring techniques
to second- and simple third-degree polynomials. These techniques include finding a common factor for all terms
in a polynomial, recognizing the difference of two squares, and recognizing
perfect squares of binomials.
- 12.0 Students simplify fractions with
polynomials in the numerator and denominator by factoring both and reducing them to the lowest terms.
- 13.0 Students add, subtract, multiply, and
divide rational expressions and functions. Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by
using these techniques.
- 14.0 Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or
completing the square.
- 15.0 Students apply algebraic techniques to
solve rate problems, work problems, and percent mixture problems.
- 16.0 Students understand the concepts of a
relation and a function, determine whether a given relation defines a function, and give pertinent information about
given relations and functions.
- 17.0 Students determine the domain of
independent variables and the range of de-pendent variables defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic
- 18.0 Students determine whether a relation
defined by a graph, a set of ordered pairs, or a symbolic expression is a function and justify the conclusion.
- 19.0 Students know the quadratic formula and
are familiar with its proof by completing the square.
- 20.0 Students use the quadratic formula to
find the roots of a second-degree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations.
- 21.0 Students graph quadratic functions and
know that their roots are the x-intercepts.
- 22.0 Students use the quadratic formula or
factoring techniques or both to determine whether the graph of a quadratic function will intersect the x-axis in zero, one,
or two points.
- 23.0 Students apply quadratic equations to
physical problems, such as the motion of an object under the force of gravity.
- 24.0 Students use
and know simple aspects of a logical argument:
- 24.1 Students
explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and identify and
provide examples of each.
- 24.2 Students
identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.
- 24.3 Students use
counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize that a single
counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.
25.0 Students use properties of the number
system to judge the validity of results, to justify each step of a procedure, and to prove or disprove statements:
25.1 Students use
properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct and indirect) for,
or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.
25.2 Students judge
the validity of an argument according to whether the properties of the real number
system and the order of operations have been applied correctly at each step.
25.3 Given a
specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute value expressions or
equations or inequalities, students determine whether the statement is true sometimes,
always, or never.